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248                  HISTORY OF PERSIA                 CHAP.
Baber of the empire in India, with which from the begin-
ning of the seventeenth century England was in close
contact, lies outside the scope of this work. That illus-
trious monarch died in A.D. 1530, and ten years later his
successor, Humayun, was driven out by an insurrection
and took refuge in Persia, where Tahmasp, recollecting
the ties that united the two royal families, not only
received him with chivalrous courtesy, but aided him
with an army to regain the throne. A memorial of the
wandering of the royal fugitive exists in an inscription at
Turbat-i-Shaykh Jam, which runs :
O Thou whose mercy accepts the apology of all.
The mind of every one is exposed to Thy Majesty.
The threshold of thy gate is the Kibla* of all peoples.
Thy bounty with a glance supports every one.
A Wanderer in the Desert of Destitution.
Mohamed Humayun.
14th Shawal, A.H. 951 (Dec. 29, 1544).
It adds to the interest of this somewhat pathetic
memorial to learn that Humayun was married to a
daughter of the Shaykh of Jam, who bore him the famous
The Rebellion of Ilkhas Mirza, A.H. 954-955 (1547-
1548).  Sulayman was encouraged to make another
attempt on Persia by the rebellion of Ilkhas Mirza, a
brother of the Shah, who had fled to his court and whom
he treated with much distinction. He despatched an
army, and Azerbaijan and Isfahan were taken ; but Ilkhas
Mirza quarrelled with his allies and the campaign ended
in failure. The Pretender was afterwards captured and
put to death.
The Perso-Turkish Treaty of Peace, A.H. 962 (1555).
Since the foundation of the Safavi dynasty there had been
a state of hostilities, either active or in suspension, between
Persia and Turkey. Both states at last became weary
of the war, and in A.H. 961 (1554) a Persian ambassador,
the commander of the royal bodyguard, reached Erzeroum
1 This translation I owe to the late Ney Eliaa (Journal R.A.S., Jan, 1897).   The
Kibla is the "direction" towards Mecca.